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蒙大拿州立法听证,关于网络霸凌

热度 2已有 998 次阅读2015-2-12 07:26 PM |系统分类:法律制度

近日,蒙大拿州的议会在听证一个法律提案。这个提案是主要是关于未成年的网络霸凌(Cyberbullying)的。

Section 1. Cyberbullying
(1) A person commits the offense of cyberbullying if the person purposefully or knowingly:
(a) with the purpose to terrify, intimidate, threaten, harass, or torment a minor as defined in 45-8-205:
(i) builds a fictitious profile or internet website;
(ii) poses as a minor in an internet chat room, electronic mail message, instant message, or other electronic communication as defined in 45-8-213;
(iii) follows a minor online or into an internet chat room; or 
(iv) posts or encourages others to post on the internet private, personal, or sexual information pertaining to a minor;
(b) with the purpose to terrify, intimidate, threaten, harass, or torment a minor or a minor's parent or guardian:
(i) posts a real or doctored image of a minor on the internet;
(ii) accesses, alters, or erases any computer network, computer data, computer program, or computer software, including breaking into a password-protected account or stealing or otherwise accessing a password; or
(iii) uses a computer system for repeated, continuing, or sustained communications, including electronic mail or other transmissions, to a minor;
(c) posts on the internet a statement, whether true or false, that intends to provoke or actually provokes a third party to stalk or harass a minor;
(d) causes an unauthorized copy to be made or copies and disseminates any data pertaining to a minor in any form, including but not limited to any printed or electronic form of computer data, a computer program, or computer software residing in, communicated by, or produced by a computer or computer network for the purpose of terrifying, intimidating, threatening, harassing, or tormenting a minor;
(e) registers a minor for access to a pornographic internet website; or
(f) without authorization from the minor or the minor's parent or guardian, registers a minor for access to electronic mailing lists or to receive junk electronic mail and instant messages, resulting in intimidation, harassment, or torment of the minor.
(2) A person convicted of the offense of cyberbullying is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be fined an amount not to exceed $500 or be imprisoned in the county jail for a term not to exceed 6 months, or both.
(3) As used in this section, the following definitions apply:
(a) "Internet chat room" means a computer service allowing two or more users to communicate with each other in real time.
(b) "Profile" means:
(i) a configuration of user data required by a computer so that the user may access programs or services and perform the user's desired functions on that computer; or
(ii) a personal page or section of a page on a website made up of data in text or graphic form that displays significant, unique, or identifying information, including but not limited to listing acquaintances, interests, associations, activities, or personal statements.

在这个蒙大拿州的提案中,我们看到对网络霸凌的定义主要有这几点要素
  • 有意或者故意 (purposefully or knowingly)
  • 伤害 (intimidation, harassment, or torment of the minor)
  • 引向伤害 (registers a minor to receive junk electronic mail and instant messages,或者provokes a third party to stalk or harass a minor)
如果罪名成立,惩罚是最多500元,最多6个月,或者两者。

一个法案可能带来的问题,有模糊、有漏、和过几点。要么是有的行为定义不清楚;有的行为该惩罚,法案却没有提到;或者法案过宽,以至于一些不该被惩罚的被惩罚。

我觉得(c)和(f)这两点都有些过了。其它点里基本都要至少“purposefully or knowingly”。但是c、f这两点都不包含“意”。

c) 如果你在网上发帖子里提到某某说了什么什么,假设你的帖子是真实的叙述。你睡觉去了。而这个帖子“actually provokes a third party to stalk or harass a minor”,那么你也罪名成立。

f) 不管你是否有意伤害未成年人,如果你帮他/她注册了某个群发邮件,你睡觉去了。而如果这个群发邮件将来“resulting in intimidation, harassment, or torment of the minor”,那么你也罪名成立。

在上面的假设情况里,你睡觉前假设你没有恶意。而你睡觉去了以后,你已经完全脱离了对事情的控制。所以整个过程即便你没有恶意,也可能会惹祸上身。我认为这是过分的。


References:
http://leg.mt.gov/bills/mca_toc/45_8_2.htm
http://leg.mt.gov/bills/2015/billpdf/HB0317.pdf

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发表评论 评论 (3 个评论)

回复 TFollowerII 2015-2-13 07:17 PM
相比之下,北卡州的§ 14-458.1.  Cyber-bullying; penalty.就要比蒙州的(c)要好得多。
北卡的是这样措辞的:

(3) Make any statement, whether true or false, intending to immediately provoke, and that is likely to provoke, any third party to stalk or harass a minor.

里面除了意“intending”,还有事实上“likely”。
回复 TFollowerII 2015-2-12 11:47 PM
忆江南: 关于(c),可不可以这样理解,intention很难证明,所以提案用语给了法官一定的Discretion?
关于(f),同意博主的观点,还有一点有意思的是,假如有 authorizati ...
证明intention虽然难,但是还是可以证明的。不论是法官把握reasonable这个线还是陪审团。

觉得c)再怎么自由裁量,也不应该裁量出原文里没有提到的需要证明intention这个要求。
回复 忆江南 2015-2-12 11:31 PM
关于(c),可不可以这样理解,intention很难证明,所以提案用语给了法官一定的Discretion?
关于(f),同意博主的观点,还有一点有意思的是,假如有 authorization from the minor,同样的后果就能免罪了吗?这好像是高估了Minor的行为责任能力。

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